Today we listened to a zoom presentation of Monica Madsen. Were we learned about pandemics and the consequences that comes with it. She talked primarily about four different topics. This was:
- What is a pandemic?
- Do the states cooperate to handle the pandemics?
- What are the consequences for war and conflicts while a pandemic is going on?
- What are the consequences for politics because of covid.19?
A pandemic is a worldwide spread of a new disease. A pandemic is caused by a virus which people aren’t immune against. She talked about three different pandemics, but there are many more viruses that have been spreading around the world earlier in our history. She talked about covid.19, the Spanish flu and the great plague.
States internationally cooperate with exterminating and finding vaccines against pandemics. This is done by primary the WHO – worlds health organization, they work internationally with research work, educating people, emergency assistance and technical assistance to better people’s health condition and well-being. This is the third sustainable development goal, good health and well-being. They have for example exterminated the smallpox virus. They are now working on exterminating covid.19, polio and malaria. Other active organisations are:
- Monetary fund
Having a pandemic around the world brings consequences for on going conflicts and wars. This is because it adds difficulties and problems to the already on-going problem. When covid.19 came, they tried to have truce, but it didn’t last long. A pandemic makes it hard to keep going with crisis management, peace operations and crisis diplomacy. A pandemic like covid.19 also brings bigger consequences for states that is already fragile. This is because it causes unrest, looting and conflicts. It also causes economic problems, which causes poverty to be an even bigger problem then what it already is.
Since a pandemic causes unrest in states, and is a sudden big problem for many, it means that politicians have to act fast. Because politicians don’t know exactly what to do and since there is nothing that helps against the pandemic, it creates distrust to the state. Since Donald Trump blames china for the covid.19, and talks a lot about “chinavirus”, it has caused the American and Chinese power struggle between each other to being worse. Also because of Trump’s name on the virus it has caused a lot of racism and demonstrations. Trump has also decided to get out of the WHO fund, and plan on making a vaccine in the US where he prioritizes only Americans.
She also had a presentation about the on-going conflicts in Kashmir, which have been going on for many years now. Kashmir is a beautiful country but is struggling with one of the worst conflicts. Kashmir is located between India, China and Pakistan. The four points she talked about was:
- What are the historical ties between India and Pakistan?
- Who are the primary actors in this conflict?
- What are the causes for the conflict?
- How are the status of the conflict today?
The history between India and Pakistan is that once India were one big country, but when India wanted to become a principality with self-government, it split in two states, which became India and Pakistan. After this an on-going conflict was about to begin between them, that are still going on today.
The primary actors in the Kashmir conflict was Pakistan, India and China. India and Pakistan had several wars and they disagreed about who were going to have control over Kashmir. Eventually China began to meddle in the conflict as well. Kashmir wanted to be an independent country.
It all started in 1858 when India split in to two states and Kashmir was left unclear. Kashmir wanted to be independent but got attacked from northern Pakistan and India came in with military strength. This started a two-year war between India and Pakistan. FN then came in with a peace agreement, that didn’t work that well. Pakistan were going to have 1/3 of Kashmir and India were going to have ¾. But since this didn’t work, the conflict kept going. China then immigrated to Kashmir and then a war between China and India started, because India disagreed. Rebellion groups kept fighting for Kashmir’s independent. India and Pakistan kept fighting against each other. Other causes for the conflict was resources, the placement of Kashmir, history and religion, the on-going brutality, human right violations and Kashmir’s wish of being independent.
Today India are controlling 45% of Kashmir, Pakistan 38% and China controls 17%. FN is working on doing the situation better with observing the conflict and giving support to the rebellion groups. But FN is not allowed into the countries. It is still today a lot of tension between the borders. Both India and Pakistan have nuclear power. China does now communicate with Pakistan and India have a more active politic. They say it is two possible solutions to the conflict, but both are not easy to go trough with. This is either split Kashmir in two and making the borders international, or to loosen the borders.